Alvarez, I., Espasa, A. and Guasch, T. (2012). The value of feedback in improving collaborative writing assignments in an online learning environment. Studies in Higher Education 37(4): pp. 387-400.

Anderson, L. W. and Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (New York, Longman)

Araceli Ruiz-Primo, M. and Furtak, E. M. (2006). Informal formative assessment and scientific inquiry: Exploring teachers’ practices and student learning. Educational Assessment 11(3-4): pp. 237-263.

Armstrong, D. G. (2003). Curriculum today. (Upper Saddle River, Merrill Prentice Hall).

Attard, P. A., and Buhagiar, A. J. (1996). Secondary Education in Malta. (Strasbourg, Council of Europe Press).

Avedon, E. M., and Sutton-Smith, B. (1971). The study of games. (New York, Wiley).

Bates, S. P., Galloway, R. K. and McBride, K. L. (2012). Student-generated content: Using PeerWise to enhance engagement and outcomes in introductory physics courses, AIP Conference Proceedings Omaha, Nebraska, pp. 123-126.

Bayne, S. (2015). What’s the matter with ‘technology-enhanced learning’? Learning, Media and Technology 40(1): pp. 5-20.

Begg, M., Dewhurst, D. and MacLeod, H. (2005). Game Informed Learning: Applying Computer Game Processes to Higher Education. Innovate 1(6).

Begg, M., Ellaway, R., Dewhurst, D. and Macleod H. (2007). Transforming Professional Healthcare Narratives into Structured Game Informed Learning Activities. Innovate 3(6).

BERA (2011). Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. British Educational Research Association. Retrieved: 22 April 2014.

Bezzina, S. (2013). Reframing online assessment through game-informed learning: Five guiding principles for game-informed online assessment, EDUA11147 Online Assessment. University of Edinburgh, unpublished. Retrieved from

Biggs, J. (1989). Approaches to the enhancement of tertiary teaching. Higher Education Research and Development 8(1): pp. 7-25

Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education 32(3): pp. 347-364.

Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teaching for constructing learning. Retrieved: 1 June 2015.

Birenbaum, M., Breuer, K., Cascallar, E., Dochy, F., Dori, Y., Ridgway, J. and Nickmans, G. (2006). A learning integrated assessment system. Educational Research Review 1(1): pp. 61-67.

Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education 5(1): pp. 7-74.

Black, P., and Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability (formerly: Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education) 21(1): pp. 5-31.

Black, P., Harrison, C. and Lee, C. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. (Berkshire, Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education).

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and Wiliam, D. (2004). Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. Phi Delta Kappan 86(1): pp. 8-21.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (New York, David McKay Co Inc.).

Bloom, B. S., Hastings, J. T. and Madaus, G. F. (Eds.) (1971). Handbook on the Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning (New York, McGraw-Hill).

Bloxham, S. and Boyd, P. (2007). Developing effective assessment in higher education. (Berkshire, Open University Press).

Borenstein, M. (2012). Statistical hypothesis tests. In Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe and L. Hedges (Eds.) (London, Sage): pp. 330-337.

Boud, D. (1995). Assessment and learning: contradictory or complementary. Assessment for learning in higher education pp: 35-48.

Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in continuing education 22(2): pp. 151-167.

Boud, D. (2007). Great designs: what should assessment do? Re-engineering Assessment Practices (REAP) conference, Glasgow, Scotland, p 7.

Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2006). Aligning assessment with long‐term learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 31(4): pp. 399-413.

Boud, D. and Molloy, E. (2013). Rethinking models of feedback for learning: the challenge of design. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 38(6): pp. 698-712.

Brown, G. (1997). Assessing Student Learning in Higher Education. (London, Routledge).

Brown, S. (1999). Institutional strategies for assessment. In Assessment matters in higher education: Choosing and using diverse approaches. S. Brown and A. Glasner (Eds.) (Buckingham, Open University Press): pp. 3-13.

Brown, S. and Knight, P. (1994). Assessing Learners in Higher Education. (London, Kogan Page).

Brown, J. S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher pp. 32-42.

Bruner, J. (1983). Play, thought, and language. Peabody Journal of Education 60(3): pp. 60-69.

Bryan, C., and Clegg, K. (2006). Innovative assessment in higher education. (Psychology Press).

Bull, J. and McKenna, C. (2003). A blueprint for computer-assisted assessment. (London, Routledge).

Byrnes, R. and Ellis, A. (2006). The distribution and features of learning management systems in Australian universities and their role in student assessment, Proceedings of AusWeb04, Gold Coast, Australia.

Caillois, R. (1961). Man, Play, and Games. (New York, Simon & Schuster).

Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in higher education 31(2): pp. 219-233.

Carless, D. (2007). Learning-oriented assessment: conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International (44)1: pp. 57–66.

Carless, D. (2009). Learning-oriented assessment: Principles, practice and a project. In Tertiary Assessment & Higher Education Student Outcomes: Policy, Practice & Research. L. H. Meyer, S. Davidson, H. Anderson, R. Fletcher, P. M. Johnston and M. Rees (Eds.) (Wellington, Ako Aotearoa): pp. 79-90.

Carless, D., Salter, D., Yang, M. and Lam, J. (2011). Developing sustainable feedback practices. Studies in Higher Education 36(4): pp. 395-407.

Challis, D. (2005). Committing to quality learning through adaptive online assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 30(5): pp. 519-527.

Chang, C. Y. and Mao, S. L. (1999). The effects on students’ cognitive achievement when using the cooperative learning method in earth science classrooms. School Science and Mathematics 99(7): pp. 374-379.

Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE bulletin (3)7.

Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z. (1991). Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education: New directions for teaching and learning. (San Francisco, JosseyBass).

Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z. (1999). Development and adaptations of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. New directions for teaching and learning 80: pp. 75-81.

Choi, D. H., Kim, J., and Kim, S. H. (2007). ERP training with a web-based electronic learning system: The flow theory perspective. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 65(3): pp. 223-243.

Clegg, K. and Bryan, C. (2006). Reflections, rationales and realities. In Innovative Assessment in Higher Education. C. Bryan and K. Clegg (Eds.) (London, Routledge): pp. 216-227.

Cochran-Smith, M. and Lytle, S. L. (Eds.) (1993). Inside/outside: Teacher research and knowledge. (New York, Teachers College Press).

Coe, R. J. (2012). Conducting your Research. In Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe and L. Hedges (Eds.) (London, Sage): pp. 41-52.

Cohen, J. (1988). (2nd ed.) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. Research Methods in Education. (New York, Routledge).

Collins, A., Brown, J. S. and Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. L. B. Resnick (Ed.) (Hillsdale, Erlbaum): pp. 453-494.

Cousin, G. (2005). Learning from cyberspace. In Education in Cyberspace. R. Land and S. Bayne (Eds.) (Abingdon, Routledge): pp. 117-129.

Crisp, G. (2011). Teacher’s Handbook on e-Assessment (Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd).

Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research 58: pp. 438-481.

Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. (New York, Harper and Row).

Davies, W. M. (2009). Groupwork as a form of assessment: common problems and recommended solutions. Higher Education 58(4): pp. 563-584.

de Freitas, S. (2006). Learning in immersive worlds: A review of game-based learning (Joint Information Systems Committee Report). (London)

de Freitas, S. and Griffiths, M. (2007). Online gaming as an educational tool in learning and training. British Journal of Educational Technology 38(3): pp. 535-537.

Deters, F., Cuthrell, K. and Stapleton, J. (2010). Why wikis? Student perceptions of using wikis in online coursework. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 6(1): pp. 122-134.

Dewey, J. (1910). How We Think. (Boston, MA: D.C. Heath & Co)

Dunleavy, M., Dede, C. and Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology 18(1): pp. 7-22.

Dunn, K. E. and Mulvenon, S. W. (2009). A critical review of research on formative assessment: The limited scientific evidence of the impact of formative assessment in education. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation 14(7): pp. 1-11.

Eisner, E. (1992). Objectivity in educational research. Curriculum Inquiry 22(1): pp. 9-15.

Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of education and work 14(1): pp. 133-156.

Erikson, E. H. (1956). The problem of ego identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: pp. 56–121.

Eskrootchi, R. and Oskrochi, G. R. (2010). A study of the efficacy of project-based learning integrated with computer-based simulation-STELLA. Journal of Educational Technology & Society 13(1): pp. 236-245.

Fenwick, T., Edwards, R. and Sawchuk, P. (2011). Emerging approaches to educational research: Tracing the socio-material. (Abingdon, Routledge).

Field, A. (2009). (3rd ed.) Discovering Statistics using SPSS. (London, Sage Publications).

Flor, N. and Hutchins, E. (1991). Analysing distributed cognition in software teams: a case study of team programming during perfective software maintenance. In Proceedings of the fourth annual workshop on empirical studies of programmers. J. Koenemann-Belliveau, T. G. Moher and S. P. Robertson (Eds.) (Norwood, Ablex Publishing): pp. 36-59.

Freepik #1, n.d. School vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 02 March 2015].

Freepik #2, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 15 June 2015].

Freepik #3, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at:,, and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #4, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at:,,, and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #5, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #6, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #7, n.d. Icon vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #8, n.d. Logo vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #9, n.d. Flower vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 5 May 2015].

Freepik #10, n.d. Logo vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #12, n.d. Infographic vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 7 April 2015].

Freepik #13, n.d. Logo vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: and [Accessed 19 June 2015].

Freepik #14, n.d. Background vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 12 January 2015].

Freepik #15, n.d. Measuring Tape free photo. [image] Available at: [Accessed 12 January 2015].

Freepik #16, n.d. Blue Lens 01 free photo. [image] Available at: [Accessed 12 January 2015].

Freepik #17, n.d. School vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2015].

Freepik #18, n.d. School vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2015].

Freepik #19, n.d. School vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2015].

Freepik #20, n.d. Design vector designed by Freepik. [vector image] Available at: [Accessed 5 July 2015].

Furst, E. J. (1981). Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives for the cognitive domain: Philosophical and educational issues. Review of Educational Research 51(4): pp. 441-453.

Garrison, D. R. and Anderson, T. (2003). E–Learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. (London, Routledge/Falmer).

Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling. (New York, Routledge).

Gee, J. P. (2005). Learning by Design: good video games as learning machines. E–Learning 2(1): pp. 5-16.

Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (New York, Palgrave Macmillan).

Gibbs, G. and Simpson, C. (2004-5). Conditions under which assessment supports students’ learning. Learning and teaching in higher education 1(1): pp. 3-31.

Greenfield, P. (1984). Video Games. In Mind and Media: The Effects of Television, Video Games, and Computers (Cambridge Mass, Harvard University Press): pp. 86-114.

Grima, G. and Chetcuti, D. (2003). Current assessment practices in schools in Malta and Gozo – a research project. Journal of Maltese Education Research 1(2): pp. 57-94.

Grix, J. (2002). Introducing students to the generic terminology of social research. Politics 22(3): pp. 175-186.

Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions and emerging confluences. In The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) (California, Sage): pp. 191-216.

Guzman, E. (2015). Dissertation Festival banner [image] [Accessed 23 June 2015].

Hargreaves, E. (2007). The validity of collaborative assessment for learning. Assessment in Education 14(2): pp. 185-199.

Harlen, W. (2005). Teachers’ summative practices and assessment for learning –tensions and synergies. Curriculum Journal 16(2): pp. 207-223.

Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research 77(1): pp. 81-112.

Hedges, L. V. (2012). Design of empirical research. In Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe and L. Hedges (Eds.) (London, Sage): pp. 23-30.

Hennessy, S. (1993). Situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship: Implications for classroom learning. Studies in Science Education 22(1): pp. 1-41.

Hepplestone, S., Holden, G., Irwin, B., Parkin, H. J. and Thorpe, L. (2011). Using technology to encourage student engagement with feedback: a literature review. Research in Learning Technology 19(2): pp. 117-127.

Higher Education Academy (HEA) (2012). A Marked Improvement: Transforming Assessment in Higher Education. (York, HEA).

Hounsell, D. (2007). Towards more sustainable feedback to students. In Rethinking assessment in higher education. D. Boud and N. Falchikov (Eds.) (London, Routledge): pp. 101-113.

Hounsell, D. (2008). The trouble with feedback: new challenges, emerging strategies. Interchange 2: pp. 1-10.

Hounsell, D., Xu, R. and Tai, C. M. (2007). Balancing Assessment of and Assessment for Learning. (Scottish Enhancement Themes: Guides to Integrative Assessment, guide no 2). (Gloucester: QAA).

Huizinga, J. (1949). Homo Ludens: A study of the play-element in culture. (London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd).

Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Tsai, C. C., and Yang, S. J. (2009). A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment for conducting complex science experiments. Computers & Education 53(2): pp. 402-413.

IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, literacy and learning – A multimodal approach. (Oxon, Routledge).

Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). (2007). Effective Practice with e-Assessment: An overview of technologies, policies and practice in further and higher education. Joint Information Systems Committee.

Ke, F. (2008). A case study of computer gaming for math: Engaged learning from gameplay? Computers and Education 51(4): pp. 1609-1620.

Keppell, M., Au, E., Ma, A. and Chan, C. (2006). Peer learning and learning‐oriented assessment in technology‐enhanced environments. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 31(4): pp. 453-464.

Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and higher education 8(1): pp. 13-24.

Kirriemuir, J. (2002). Videogaming, Education and Digital Technologies. D-Lib Magazine 8(2).

Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S. and Salen, K. (2009). Moving learning games forward: Obstacles, opportunities & openness (Cambridge, The Education Arcade).

Knight, P. (2001). A Briefing on Key Concepts: Formative and summative, criterion and norm-referenced assessment. Learning and Teaching Support Network.

Knight, P. (2002). Summative assessment in higher education: practices in disarray. Studies in higher education 27(3): pp. 275-286.

Kolb, D. (1984). The Process of Experiential Learning. In Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. (New Jersey, Prentice Hall): pp. 20-38.

Kress, G. (2005). Gains and losses: New forms of texts, knowledge, and learning. Computers and composition 22(1): pp. 5-22.

Lamb, B. (2004). Wide open spaces: Wikis, ready or not. EDUCAUSE review (39): pp. 36-49.

Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. (University of Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).

Lunce, L. (2006). Simulations: Bringing the benefits of situated learning to the traditional classroom. Journal of Applied Educational Technology 3(1): pp. 37-45.

Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for Designing Instructional Computer Games. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSMALL symposium and the first SIGPC symposium on Small systems, Palo Alto, California, United States, pp. 162-169.

Malone, T. W. (1982). Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer games. Proceedings of the 1982 conference on Human factors in computing systems table of contents, Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp. 63-68.

Malone, T. W. and Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making Learning Fun: A Taxonomy of Intrinsic Motivations for Learning. In Aptitute, Learning and Instruction: III. Conative and affective process analyses. R. E. Snow and M. J. Farr (Eds.), (Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum): pp. 223-253.

Malta Education Act (1988). (c.327). Malta.

Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate Examinations Board (2012). Physics SEC Syllabus 2015. (Msida, University of Malta)

Mayer, R. E. (2002). Rote versus meaningful learning. Theory into practice 41(4): pp. 226-232.

McCune, V. and Hounsell, D. (2005). The development of students’ ways of thinking and practising in three final-year biology courses. Higher Education 49(3): pp. 255-289.

McDonald, B., and Boud, D. (2003). The impact of self-assessment on achievement: the effects of self-assessment training on performance in external examinations. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 10(2): pp. 209-220.

McKenzie, K. and O’Shea, C. (2007). The use of online clinical ‘quandaries’ in professional training. Learning Disability Practice 10(7): pp. 16-21.

McLuhan, M. and Fiore, Q. (1967). The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects. (New York, Random House).

Ministry of Education and Employment (2012). A National Curriculum Framework for All 2012. (Malta, Salesian Press).

Ministry of Education, Employment and the Family (2011). A Vision for Science Education in Malta – Consultation Document. (Malta, Salesian Press).

MSc DigitalEducation, (2015). Dissertation Festival 2015: Stephen Bezzina – Transforming Assessment through Games. Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2015].

Murphy, R., and Torrance, H. (1988). The changing face of educational assessment. (Milton Keynes, Open University Press).

Murray, H. J. (1998). Immersion. In Hamlet on the Holodeck. H. J. Murray (Ed.) (Cambridge, MIT Press): pp. 97-125.

Naismith, L., Lee, B. H. and Pilkington, R. M. (2011). Collaborative learning with a wiki: Differences in perceived usefulness in two contexts of use. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27(3): pp. 228-242.

Newman, J. (2004). What is a video game? Rules, Puzzles and Simulations. In Videogames. (London, Routledge): pp. 9-28.

Nicol, D. (2007). E-assessment by design: using multiple-choice tests to good effect. Journal of Further and Higher Education 31(1): pp. 53-64.

Nicol, D. (2009). Assessment for learner self‐regulation: Enhancing achievement in the first year using learning technologies. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 34(3): pp. 335-352.

Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 35(5): pp. 501-517.

Nicol, D. (2014). Guiding principles for peer review: unlocking learners’ evaluative skills. In Advances and innovations in university assessment and feedback. C. Kreber, C. Anderson, N. Entwistle and J. McArthur (Eds.) (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press): pp. 197-224.

Nicol, D. and MacFarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A theoretical model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education 31(2): pp. 199-218.

Norman, D. A. (1993). Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. (Reading, Addison-Wesley Publishing).

Oblinger, D. (2004). The Next Generation in Educational Engagement. Journal of Interactive Media in Education (8).

O’Shea, C. and Fawns, T. (2014). Disruptions and dialogues: Supporting collaborative connoisseurship in digital environments. In Advances and innovations in university assessment and feedback. C. Kreber, C. Anderson, N. Entwistle and J. McArthur (Eds). (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press): pp. 259-273.

Ó Súilleabháin, G. (2008). Player transfer: How learning transfer and serious games answer serious (and transferable) questions about one another. In Proceedings of 2nd European Conference on Games Based Learning. T. Conolly and M. Stansfield (Eds.) (The Univesitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain) pp. 349-356.

Pace, P. (2003). Environmental Education: Providing a context for a meaningful Science Education. Journal of Baltic Science Education (1): pp. 28-35.

Palloff, R. M. and Pratt, K. (2009). Assessing the online learner: Resources and strategies for faculty (Vol. 9). (San Francisco, JosseyBass).

Panoutsopoulos, H., and Sampson, D. G. (2012). A study on exploiting commercial digital games into school context. Journal of Educational Technology & Society 15(1): pp. 15-27.

Pearce, J. M., Ainley, M., and Howard, S. (2005). The ebb and flow of online learning. Computers in human behavior 21(5): pp. 745-771.

Pellegrino, J. W., Chudowsky, N., and Glaser, R. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. (Washington, National Academy Press).

Piaget, J. (1962). Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. (New York, Norton).

Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into practice 41(4): pp. 219-225.

Popham, W. J. (2006). Assessment for educational leaders. (Boston, Pearson / Allyn and Bacon).

Punch, K. F. (2009). Introduction to Research Methods in Education. (Cornwall, Sage).

Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to Teach in Higher Education. (London, Routledge).

Ramsden, P. (1997). The context of learning in academic departments. In The Experience of Learning. F. Marton, D. Hounsell and N. Entwistle (Eds.) (Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press): pp. 198-216.

Richardson, J. T. (2011). Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review 6(2): pp. 135-147.

Rieber, L. P. (1996). Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games. Educational technology research and development 44(2): pp. 43-58.

Robles, M. and Braathen, S. (2002). Online assessment techniques. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal 44(1): pp. 39-49.

Robson, C. (2011). (3rd ed.) Real World Research. (West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons).

Rowntree, D. (1987). Assessing students: How shall we know them? (London: Kogan Page).

Russell, J., Elton, L., Swinglehurst, D. and Greenhalgh, T. (2006). Using the online environment in assessment for learning: a case-study of a web-based course in primary care. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 31(4): pp. 465-478.

Rust, C. (2002). The impact of assessment on student learning how can the research literature practically help to inform the development of departmental assessment strategies and learner-centred assessment practices? Active learning in higher education 3(2): pp. 145-158.

Rust, C. (2007). Towards a scholarship of assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 32(2): pp. 229-237.

Rust, C., O’Donovan, B. and Price, M. (2005). A social constructivist assessment process model: how the research literature shows us this could be best practice. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 30(3): pp. 231-240.

Sadler, D. R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science 18(2), pp. 119-44.

Sadler, D. R. (1998) Formative assessment: revisiting the territory. Assessment in Education 5(1): pp. 77-84.

Salen, K. and Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. (Massachusetts , MIT press).

Säljö, R. (1982). Learning and understanding: A study of differences in constructing meaning from a text (Gothenburgh, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis).

Sanden, S. and Darragh, J. (2011). Wiki use in the 21st century literacy classroom: A framework for evaluation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 11(1): pp. 6-20.

Scouller, K. (1998). The influence of assessment method on students’ learning approaches: Multiple choice question examination versus assignment essay. Higher Education 35(4): pp. 453-472.

Scriven, M. (1967). The methodology of evaluation. In Perspectives on curriculum evaluation. R. Tyler, R. Gagne and M. Scriven (Chicago, Rand McNally and Co): pp. 38-83.

Shute, V. J. and Ke, F. (2012). Games, learning, and assessment. In Assessment in Game-Based Learning. D. Ifenthaler, D. Eseryel and X. Ge (Eds.) (New York, Springer): pp. 43-58.

Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. and Zapata-Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning. In Serious Games – Mechanisms and Effects. U. Ritterfeld, M. Cody and P. Vorderer (Eds.) (New York, Routledge): pp. 295-321.

Solman, R. and Rosen, G. (1986). Bloom’s Six Cognitive Levels Represent Two Levels of Performance. Educational Psychology 6(3): pp. 243-263.

Sploder #1, n.d. Sploder Screenshot. [image] Available at: [Accessed 9 July 2015].

Sploder #2, n.d. Sploder Platformer Game Maker. Retrieved: 19 July 2015, and

Squire, K. (2003). Video games in education. International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming 2(1): pp. 49-62.

Squire, K. (2005). Game-Based Learning: An X-Learn Perspective Paper (MASIE center: e-Learning Consortium Report).

Squire, K. (2008). Video game literacy: A literacy of expertise. In Handbook of research on new literacies. J. Coiro, M. Knobel, C. Lankshear, D. Leu (Eds.) (Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers): pp 635-670.

Squire, K. and Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight 3(1): pp. 5-33.

Steinkuehler, C. A. (2004). Learning in massively multiplayer online games. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Y. B. Kafai, W. A. Sandoval, N. Enyedy, A. S. Nixon and F. Herrera (Eds.) (Mahwah, Erlbaum): pp. 521-528.

Stiggins, R. (2005). From formative assessment to assessment for learning: A path to success in standards-based schools. Phi Delta Kappan 87(4): pp. 324-328.

Suits, B. (1978). The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia. (Toronto, University of Toronto Press).

Sultana, R. G. (1999). The secondary education certificate and matriculation examinations in Malta: A case study. (Geneva, Unesco International Bureau of Education).

Tang, S., Hanneghan, M., and El Rhalibi, A. (2009). Introduction to games-based learning. In Games-based learning advancements for multi- sensory human computer interfaces. T. Connolly, M. Stansfield and L. Boyle (Eds.) (Hershey, PA: IGI Global): pp. 1–17.

Taras, M. (2001). The use of tutor feedback and student self-assessment in summative assessment tasks: Towards transparency for students and for tutors. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 26(6): pp. 605-614.

Taras, M. (2005). Assessment – summative and formative – some theoretical reflections. British Journal of Educational Studies 53(4): pp. 466-478.

Tenenbaum, G. (1986). The effect of quality of instruction on higher and lower mental processes and on the prediction of summative achievement. The Journal of Educational Research 80(2): pp. 105-113.

Torrance, H. and Pryor, J. (1998). Investigating formative assessment: Teaching, learning and assessment in the classroom. (Buckingham, Open University Press, McGraw-Hill).

Trees, A. R. and Jackson, M. H. (2007). The learning environment in clicker classrooms: student processes of learning and involvement in large university-level courses using student response systems. Learning, Media and Technology 32(1): pp. 21-40.

Trochim, W. M. K. (2001). (2nd ed.) Research Methods Knowledge Base. (Ohio, Atomic Dog Publishing).

UN General Assembly (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved: 22 April 2014.

Videvo #1, (2014). Passengers at Airport Terminal. Available at: [Accessed 13 January 2015].

Vogel, J. J., Vogel, D. S., Cannon-Bowers, J., Bowers, C. A., Muse, K. and Wright, M. (2006). Computer gaming and interactive simulations for learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research 34(3): pp. 229-243.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press).

Wang, T. H. (2007). What strategies are effective for formative assessment in an e-learning environment? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (23): pp. 171-186.

Warschauer, M. (2007). The paradoxical future of digital learning. Learning Inquiry 1(1): pp. 41-49.

Wheeler, S. and Wheeler, D. (2009). Using wikis to promote quality learning in teacher training. Learning, Media and Technology 34(1): pp. 1-10.

Whitelock, D. (2006). Electronic assessment: marking, monitoring and mediating learning. International Journal of Learning Technology 2(2): pp. 264-276.

Whitelock, D. and Cross, S. (2012). Authentic assessment: What does it mean and how is it instantiated by a group of distance learning academics? International Journal of e-Assessment 2(1), Article 9.

Whitelock, D. and Watt, S. (2008). Reframing e‐assessment: adopting new media and adapting old frameworks. Learning, Media and Technology 33(3): pp. 151-154.

Whitton, N. (2009). Learning with digital games: A practical guide to engaging students in higher education. (New York, Routledge).

Wiles, R., Heath, S., Crow, G., and Charles, V. (2006). Anonymity and Confidentiality. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, paper presented at ESRC Research Methods Festival, University of Oxford, 17-20 July. Retrieved: 22 April 2014.

Wiliam, D., Lee, C., Harrison, C. and Black, P. (2004). Teachers developing assessment for learning: Impact on student achievement. Assessment in Education (11): pp. 49-65.

Willey, K. and Gardner, A. (2010). Investigating the capacity of self and peer assessment activities to engage students and promote learning. European Journal of Engineering Education 35(4): pp. 429-443.

Wilson, M. and Sloane, K. (2000). From principles to practice: An embedded assessment system. Applied Measurement in Education 13(2): pp. 181-208.

Wininger, R. S. (2005). Using your tests to teach: Formative summative assessment. Teaching Psychology 32(2): pp. 164-166.

Yu, F. Y. (2011). Multiple peer-assessment modes to augment online student question-generation processes. Computers & Education 56(2): pp. 484-494.

Zheng, A. Y., Lawhorn, J. K., Lumley, T. and Freeman, S. (2008). Application of Bloom’s Taxonomy Debunks the “MCAT Myth”. Science (319): pp. 414-415.

Go to